Al Farooq Omar Bin Al Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) was one of the counsellors of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and one of his close companions. He was known by many names and titles such as: The commander of the faithful, Abu Hafs, Al Adwi, and Al Qurashi, but he was truly known by “Al Farooq,” which means the one who differentiates between right and wrong. He was one of the ten people who were given glad tidings of paradise and one of the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) married his daughter Hafsa (may Allah be pleased with her) to him. Al Farooq was one of the ascetics and was well-known for his justice and strength in the right as he was not afraid of anyone but Allah. He was killed by the slave Piruz Nahavandi in 23 A.H. corresponding 7, November, 644 AD.
His Caliphate and contributions
Al Farooq Omar Bin Al Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him), who was the second caliph after Abu Bakr Al Siddiq (may Allah be pleased with them), was a pioneer in civil affairs. He celebrated a lot of achievements. For example, he was the first to apply the system of public ministry, where the records of the officials and soldiers were reserved. He kept also a record of messages he sent to rulers and state presidents. He was the first to appoint Sahib Al Ahdas (Chief of Police, in charge of maintaining civil order). He was the first to punish citizens when they started to violate the order. He was the first to unite Muslims in Al-Tarawih Prayers. He also expanded the mosque of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).
Al Farooq Omar (may Allah be pleased with him) created the postal system and inserted the position of Executive Secretary. He was the first to appoint the secretary of the diwan “bureau” (Military Secretary) and the revenue collector. In addition, he was the first to appoint the Head of Treasury and the Chief Judge who heads the judicature.